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Fisheries Biology Research Guide


American Fisheries Society (AFS) publications use the author–date system for references, with brief parenthetical citations in the text and full references in an alphabetical list at the end.

In-Text Citations


 . . . similar findings (Gorman and Karr 1978). 

Mills (1989) states that. . . . 


When there is more than one citation for a particular statement, list them (1) chronologically, beginning with the oldest (with “in press” and “unpublished” sources at the end), and then (2) alphabetically within years (with citations containing “and” and “et al.” in alphabetical order): 

(Roberts 1985; Johnson 1987; Berger, in press) 

(Eldridge 1989; Smith 1992; Smith and Thomas 1992)


If there are two authors, the last names of both of them should be included in the text citation; if there are more than two, include the last name of the first author followed by “et al.”

For exceptions and additional information, please, consult the style guide trough the links provided to the right.

Reference Lists

References should be listed alphabetically by the authors' last names.

If there is more than one reference with the same authors, those references should be listed chronologically. 

Smith, R. C. 1992. Spawning patterns in. . . . 

Smith, R. C., J. B. Oldham, and W. F. Stone. 1998. Determinants of. . . . 

Smith, R. C., and H. Thompson. 1995. Observations on. . . . 

Smith, R. C., and H. Thompson. 1997. Additional observations on. . . .


The general formats for journals and other professional periodicals are as follows:

Hochachka, P. W. 1990. Scope for survival: a conceptual “mirror” to Fry’s scope for activity. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 119:622–628.

Kennedy, V. S. 1990. Anticipated effects of climate change on estuarine and coastal fisheries. Fisheries 15(6):16–24. 


For detailed rules consult the style guide through the links provided to the right.

AFS Publications Style Guide (American Fisheries Society)