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"Part of our contemporary crisis is created by a lack of meaningful access to truth. That is to say, individuals are not just presented untruths, but are told them in a manner that enables most effective communication. When this collective cultural consumption of and attachment to misinformation is coupled with the layers of lying individuals do in their personal lives, our capacity to face reality is severely diminished as is our will to intervene and change unjust circumstances."
-bell hooks, Teaching to Transgress
The term 'fake news' has been getting a lot of press since the 2016 presidential election. During the election cycle there was an influx of misinformation from websites that, while looking official and credible, were fabricating stories and data to increase their page views. Unlike satire news sites like the Onion, these sites appear official and often even spoof well-known popular news outlets.
The term 'fake news,' however, has become more complicated as it gets conflated with media bias and other criticisms of mainstream media. In early 2017, use of the term became a way to discredit news sources that an individual disagrees with.
This short guide examines false information in various forms and is primarily focused on news stories and outlets that spread false information either on purpose or by negligence.
Note: These types of lists are difficult to keep up-to-date and accurate. They are also subject to personal bias. You're probably better off just to ignore these. Now that you've read the disclaimer, for those of you who really like lists: