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Wildlife Research Guide

Citation Style Examples

The Basics

To correctly format a citation in JWM style, you need to know the type of source.  But there are certain rules that apply to all JWM citations in your reference list:

  • Reference lists are alphabetized by the first author's last names.
  • Format each entry in your reference list using a hanging indent.  This means that every line after the first line is indented 1/2 inch.
  • Most titles (article titles, chapter titles, web page titles, or book titles) should be written with the first letter of the first word capitalized, and all subsequent words should be written in lower case (with the exception of proper nouns).  


Reference List

(from an article)

Barnes, D. M., and A. U. Mallik. 1997. Habitat factors influencing beaver
dam establishment in a northern Ontario watershed. Journal of Wildlife
Management 61:1371-1377.

(from a book)

Toweill, D.E., J. W. Thomas, and D. P. Metz. 2002. North
American elk: ecology and management. Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington, D.C., USA.


In-text Citation

JWM uses a parenthetical in-text citation containing author(s) last name(s) and publication year.

1 author

(Ripple 2014)

If the author(s) is named in the sentence, only include the publication year in the parenthetical citation. Always include the period to end the sentence after the last parentheses.

Ripple found that many carnivores are at risk and heavily managed by humans (2014).


2 authors

Include both authors' last names

(Bankston and Meador 2015).

3 or more authors

Use the first author's last name followed by et al. to indicate other authors.

(Foster et al. 2019).


Pulled from: https://guides.library.oregonstate.edu/c.php?g=286038&p=3844481