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Oceanography Research Guide

Dictionaries and Encyclopedias

Provide definitions of discipline terminology and/or general introductions to topics and concepts in oceanography. Scholarly encyclopedias include references to selected "primary" literature.

  • Encyclopedia of Beaches and Coastal Environments (Schwartz) 1982 (ref GB 450.4 E53 1982)
  • Encyclopedia of Earth System Science (Nierenberg) 1992 (4 vols.) (ref QE 5 E514)
  • Encyclopedia of Environmental Biology (Nierenberg) 1995 (3 vols.) (ref QH 540.4 E52)
  • Encyclopedia of Geology (Selley, Cocks and Plimer) 2005 (5 vols.) (ref QE 5 E516 2005) Scholarly encyclopedia that covers all aspects of earth history, earth materials, earth and surface processes, economic geology, history of geology and the regional geology of specific areas. A contents list is available (see link below).
  • Encyclopedia of Oceanography (Fairbridge) 1966 (ref GC 9 F3) Older one-volume encyclopedia in oceanography Topics in the Encyclopedia of Oceanography (Baum) contains an alphabetical list of articles in the encyclopedia(see link below).
  • Facts on File Dictionary of Marine Science (Charton) 2001 (ref GC 9 F28)
  • Glossary of Geology (Jackson) 1997 (ref QE 5 B38)
  • Standard Encyclopedia of the World's Oceans and Islands (Huxley) 1962 (ref GB 471 H9 1962) Topics in the Ocean World Encyclopedia (Baum) (see link below) lists the 350 articles describing the most important seas, islands, and other features in the world's oceans. Also includes a gazetteer with over 2,000 entries.

Directories - People

These are commonly alphabetical or subject listings of people, organizations, or places.

Directories - Organizations

These are commonly alphabetical or subject listings of people, organizations, or places.

  • Annotated Acronyms and Abbreviations of Marine Science-Related International Organizations (Docs C 55.292:Ac7/981)
  • Guide to the Marine Stations of the North Atlantic and European Waters (ref QH 91.65 E85 R68)

Scientific Reviews

Scientific reviews or "state-of-the-art" reviews critically survey a narrow topic and identify and evaluate research which has appeared in the "primary" literature. Extensive bibliographies of cited "primary" literature are commonly included. Scientific reviews typically appear in annual publications entitled "Annual review of ...", "Advances in ...", as well as in journals, especially those which have "review" as part of the title.

There are several ways to locate scientific reviews:

  • Many annual review series have cumulative indexes.
  • Individual review papers are commonly included in indexes. Create a search using the keyword "review" as part of your search strategy.
  • The 39 titles in the "Annual Review of ..." publication series can be browsed or searched by keyword as far back as 1930(see link below).

Annual review series of interest in oceanography include the following titles. Use the Journal and Newspaper Finder (see link below) to determine location and format.

  • Advances in Geophysics
  • Advances in Marine Biology
  • Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences
  • Earth Science Reviews
  • Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review
  • Progress in Oceanography
  • Progress in Phycological Research

Bibliographies - General

Bibliographies are compiled lists which gather together known research on a specific topic. They are generally more useful for retrospective rather than current searching. Listed below are some additional general oceanography bibliographies available in this Library.

  • Tidal Marsh Bibliography (Daiber) 1978 (QH 541.5 M3 D35)

Bibliographies - Pacific Coast

Bibliographies are compiled lists which gather together known research on a specific topic. They are generally more useful for retrospective rather than current searching. Listed below are some additional Pacific Coast bibliographies available in this Library.

  • Bibliography for the Coastal Circulation of the Eastern North Pacific (Viena) (GC 228.6 N68 V54)
  • Bibliography of Marine Geology and Oceanography, California Coast (Terry) 1955 (Cal Docs C 810 S6 #44) (California Division of Mines and Geology Special Report #44) Covers the literature up through 1955.
  • Guided Bibliography of Coastal Salt Marsh Literature with Special Reference to the Pacific Northwest Region (Morgan) 1980 (ref QH 541.5 S25 G85)
  • Humboldt Bay, California, a Literature Survey (GC 856 W35 Hum Co Coll) The original literature survey along with accompanying bibliography was compiled in 1955 by the University of Washington Department of Oceanography. The bibliography portion is updated through 1969 by A Partial Bibliography on Humboldt Bay (GC 856 P37 Hum Co Coll).
  • Oceanography of the Nearshore Coastal Waters of the Northwest Relating to Possible Pollution (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 1971 (Water Pollution Control Research Series 16070 EOK 07/71) (Docs EP 1.16:16070 EOK 07/71) Extensive literature review up through 1970 containing 3,100 references on the coastal zone from Cape Mendocino north to Washington.
  • Oceanography of the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Bering Strait (Grier) 1940 (GC 781 G75) Includes approximately 3000 references up through 1939. Emphasis is on biological oceanography.
  • Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program: Comprehensive Bibliography(Docs I 72.12/2:86-0058) Covers the Alaska OCS region.

Bibliographies - Marine Biology

Comprehensive Works

Listed below are treatises that are authoritative compilations on the state of knowledge in various areas of oceanography and databases that contain extensive compilations of oceanographic information.

  • Behavior of Marine Animals: Current Perspectives in Research (Winn) 1972- (QL 121 W5) Currently 6 vols.
  • Chemical Oceanography (Riley) 1975- (10 vols.) (GC 111.2 R592)
  • Geology of North America (Geological Society of America) 1986-1998 (QE 71 G48 1986) 23 volume series, includes volumes on the continental margins.
  • Handbook of Marine Mammals (Ridgeway & Harrison) 1981- (QL 713.2 H355) Currently 5 vols.
  • Marine Ecology: A Comprehensive Integrated Treatise on Life in the Oceans and Coastal Waters(Kinne) 1970-1984 (5 vols. in 12 parts) (QH 541.5 S3 K5)
  • Ocean Basins and Margins (Nairn) 1973-1996 (8vols.) (QE 39 N27) Major treatise on the geology and geophysics of the world's ocean basins and margins.
  • Reproduction of Marine Invertebrates (Giese & Pearse) 1974- (QP 251 G437) Mulivolume treatise.
  • The Sea: Ideas and Observations on Progress in the Study of the Seas (Hill) 1962- (GC 11 S4) Major ongoing treatise on new developments in oceanography. Each volume has a unique title(see link below).
  • Summary of Knowledge of the Central and Northern California Coastal Zone and Offshore Areas(Winzler and Kelly) 1977 (ref GB 458.8 W56) (4 volumes in 7) Extensive summary of existing information through 1974 prepared for the US Bureau of Land Management as background information for potential of OCS oil leasing. Covers physical, biological, and socioeconomic conditions. Includes an 800 page bibliography. 
  • Treatise on Marine Ecology and Paleoecology (Hedgpeth) 1957 (Geological Society of America Memoir #67) (QE 1 G29m #67) The first major treatise on marine ecology.

Handbooks and Manuals

Handbooks commonly contain data and descriptive information that has been compiled from the "primary" literature and organized into tables or expository articles. Many basic and factual questions can be answered from handbooks. Manuals usually contain procedures for experimental analysis in the field or laboratory.

  • Data Analyis Methods in Physical Oceanography (Emory and Thomson) 2001 (GC 57 E46 2001)
  • Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (ref QD 65 H3)
  • Handbook of Marine Science (Smith) 1974 (ref GC 24 S64)
  • Handbook of Oceanographic Tables (U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office Special Publication #68) (Docs D 203.22/3:68)
  • Handbook of Techniques for Aquatic Sediment Sampling (Mudroch & MacKnight) 1994 (GC 380.2 S28 H36 1994)
  • International Oceanographic Tables (Joint Panel in Oceanographic Tables and Standards) 1966- (4 vols.) (GC 24 J24)
  • Manual of Aquatic Sediment Sampling (Mudroch) 1995 (GC 380.2 S28 M83 1995)
  • Manual of Chemical and Biological Methods for Seawater Analysis (Parson, Maita & Lall) 1984 (GC 101.2 P37 1984)
  • Manual of Methods in Aquatic Environmental Research, Parts 1-5 (Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (FAO Fisheries Technical Papers #137, 150, 158, 164, 182) (SH 1 F203)
  • Manual on Methods for Measuring Primary Production in Aquatic Environments (Vollenweider) 1974 (QH 96 V56 1974)
  • Methods for Sampling and Analysis of Marine Sediments and Dredged Materials (Waltone) 1978 (GC 300.2 S28 M47)
  • Methods of Seawater Analysis (Grasshoff) 1983 (GC 101.2 M47 1983)
  • Nautical Almanac (ref Docs D 218.11) Annual compilation of data for the practice of astronomical navigation at sea.
  • Pelagic Ecology Methods (Rao) 2002 (QK 934 P44 2002)
  • Practical Handbook of Marine Science (Kennish) 1994 (ref GC 11.2 P73)
  • Procedures for Handling and Chemical Analysis of Sediment and Water Samples (Plumb) 1981 (QD 79 S4 P58)
  • Studying Temperate Marine Environments: A Handbook for Ecologists (Kingsford and Battershill) 2000 (QH 541.5.S3 S78 2000)
  • Techniques in Marine Environmental Sciences (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea) 1987- (GC 1080 T43)

Laws and Regulations - General

  • Coastal and Ocean Management Law in a Nutshell (Christie and Hildreth) 2007 (KF5627 Z9 C48)

Laws and Regulations - Federal

  • For Federal statutory, case, and administrative law in the HSU Library see Statutory, Case and Administrative Law: Federal and California(link below)

Graphics and Images

One can use a combination of general and specialized Internet search engines to find images on the web. See Images(link below) for a list of specialized search engines. However, search engines fail to index the content of the "invisible web", especially information contained within databases. The following sources are either specialized databases or sites devoted to images or sounds in oceanography:

Geospatial Resources: Atlases and Maps - Guides

Oceanographic atlases and maps graphically compile large quantities of oceanographic station to give a composite picture of various oceanographic properties. In addition to the following resources see Geospatial Resources--Marine Maps and California Maps--Coast and Ocean(links below).

  • Oceanography Atlases: A Guide to Their Geographic Coverage and Contents (ref GC 11.2 S76) Geographically arranged index to physical and chemical charts and profiles found in approximately 100 oceanographic atlases published through 1975.

Geospatial Resources: Atlases and Maps - World Atlases

Oceanographic atlases and maps graphically compile large quantities of oceanographic station to give a composite picture of various oceanographic properties. In addition to the following resources see Geospatial Resources--Marine Maps and California Maps--Coast and Ocean(links below).

  • Atlas of Surface Marine Data (da Silva) 1994 (NOAA Atlas NESDIS 6,7,8,9,10,12,13,17) (Docs C 55.242: 6,7,8,9,10,12,13,17 microfiche) A six volume data series with supplemental volumes that depicts the world's seasonal and yearly variations of the surface marine atmosphere.
  • GEOSECS Expedition Atlas (Docs NS 1.41 folio) Series of atlas volumes resulting from the Geochemical Oceans Section Study (GEOSECS) cruises conducted during the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE) in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Includes vertical sections and graphs on temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients, and CO2. Also includes scatter diagrams and individual oceanographic station records.
  • Serial Atlas of the Marine Environment (atlas G 1046 C7 A4 folio) Continuing series of map folios produced by the American Geographical Society on the physical and biological characteristics of the oceans. Each folio is devoted to a specialized topic.
  • Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen and Phosphate in Waters off the United States (Docs C 55.219/3: 2 folio) Vol. 1: Western North Atlantic; Vol. 2: Gulf of Mexico; Vol. 3: Eastern North Pacific. Contains graphic displays and histograms on temperature, salinity, oxygen, and phosphate derived from NODC's Oceanographic Station Data File from 1920-1970.
  • Times Atlas of the Oceans (Cooper) 1983 (Atlas G 2800 T3 1983)
  • World Atlas of the Oceans : with the general bathymetric chart of the oceans (GEBCO) published by the Canadian Hydrographic Service (Leier) 2001 (Atlas G 2800 W59 2001) Contains thematic maps of the world's oceans followed by reproductions of the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans and the National Geographic Society's physiographic maps of the ocean floor.

Geospatial Resources: Atlases and Maps - Pacific Ocean Atlases

Oceanographic atlases and maps graphically compile large quantities of oceanographic station to give a composite picture of various oceanographic properties. In addition to the following resources see Geospatial Resources--Marine Maps and California Maps--Coast and Ocean(links below).

  • California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) Atlas (Cal Docs M 135 A8) This is a continuing atlas series containing data and charts on the hydrography and plankton of the California Current region; derived from annual cruises conducted since 1949.
  • NORPAC Atlas (folio GC 771 O25 Suppl 1955 vol.2 CASE) Based upon the international NORPAC Expedition in 1955, contains horizontal charts and vertical sections on temperature, salinity, oxygen, phosphate, currents and plankton. Station Data was published in a special 1955 volume of Oceanic Observations of the Pacific.
  • Oceanographic Atlas of the Pacific Ocean (atlas G 2861 C7 B3 1968 folio) Contains horizontal charts, vertical sections, and histograms on temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen compiled from 50,000 oceanographic station records in NODC's Oceanographic Station Data File.

Environmental Reviews, Assessments, & Plans

Contain analysis of environmental policies and issues and may also contain statistical data. For general reviews see Environmental Reviews(link below). Reviews more specific to oceanography include:

  • Ocean Yearbook (International Ocean Institute) Annual (GC 1 O2) Contains topical articles on major ocean issues of the year ranging from political to scientific. Our Living Oceans: Report on the Status of U.S. Living Marine Resources(link below) (US National Marine Fisheries Service) 1999 (print copies available in Docs C 55.13/2:NMFS-F/SPO #1) Presents national and regional overviews on the status of U.S. living marine resources.
  • Seas at the Millennium: An Environmental Evaluation (Sheppard) 2000 (QH 541.5 S3 S35 2000 ) Major three-volume evaluation.

Data Sources - Guides to Data

Oceanographers need access to data and the ability to combine data from a variety of sources. Beginning with the Challenger Expedition in 1872 (see link below) vast quantities of marine environmental data has been collected by oceanographic expeditions and programs conducted by institutions, nations and international cooperatives. Data collected was originally published in encyclopedic sets. Sets available in the HSU Library are listed below under Historic Data Collections. Today remote sensing satellites and automated facilities scattered throughout the ocean basins supply a continuous flow of data which resides in numerous databases. See the Guides to Data and Modern Data Sources Below.

  • Selected References to Literature on Marine Expeditions, 1700-1960 (University of Washington. Fisheries-Oceanography Library) 1972 (GC 57 S45) Arranged by ship or expedition name, this bibliography lists oceanographic research reports and data compilations that have resulted from marine expeditions.

Data Sources - Historic Data Collections

  • "Dana" Report (Q 115 C25) and Danish "Dana" Expeditions (Q 115 D3) Multivolume set of physical and biological data collected in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans during 1920-1930.
  • "Discovery" Reports (Q 115 D7) Continuing multivolume set of physical and biological data collected since 1930 in the Antarctic Ocean.
  • "Galathea" Report (Q 15 D335) Continuing multivolume set of biological data collected during the Danish Deep Sea Expedition, 1950-1952.
  • Ocean Observations of the Pacific (GC 771 O25) Thirteen-volume set of physical and biological data collected during "Pre-1949" through 1959 by Scripps Institution of Oceanography and other cooperating institutions. Included are records of early CalCOFI cruises.
  • John Murray Expedition. Scientific Reports (Q 115 J55) Eleven-volume set of biological and physical data collected during 1933 and 1934 in the Indian Ocean by the "Mabahiss."
  • Report of the "Michael Sars" North Atlantic Deep Sea Expedition (Q 115 B5) Five-volume set of physical data collected during 1904-1913 in the North Atlantic.
  • Report of the Swedish Deep Sea Expedition (Q 115 S94) Ten-volume set of geological and physical data collected by the "Albatross" during 1947 and 1948 in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.
  • "Valdivia" Expedition (Q 115 D4) 24-volume set of biological data collected in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans during 1898 and 1899.

Modern Data Sources - General

Below are a few selected sites. Use the above Guides to Data(link below) to locate the many sources of modern data.

  • Global Ocean Temperature & Salinity Profiles. 1991 ( GC 166 G56) Two cd-rom set containing temperature and salinity profiles derived from NODC archive files covering the years 1900-1990. Data is in ASCII format.
  • Oceanographic Station Profile Time Series. 1993 (GC 150.5 O23 1993) Cd-rom containing oceanographic data having repetitive samples along ocean sections or at fixed stations for long periods. Includes sections along coastal California from the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI).
  • Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project (Docs NS 1.38)
  • Marine Geological and Geophysical Data from the Deep Sea Drilling Project (US National Geophysical Data Center) 1989 (QE 39 D37 1989) Data available on cd-rom