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Citing Your Sources

Sample Citations

Chicago is a documentation syle that has been published by the Chicago University Press since 1906. Typically, Chicago style presents two basic documentation systems: (1) notes and bibliography and (2) author-date. Choosing between the two often depends on subject matter and the nature of sources cited, as each system is favored by different groups of scholars.

The notes and bibliography style is preferred by many in the humanities. This style presents bibliographic information in notes and, often, a bibliography.

Material Type

Notes/Bibliography Style

A book in print

Note Style:  1. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100.

Duplicate Note:  2. Pollan, Omnivore's Dilemma, 3. 

Bibliography: Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.

An article in a print journal

Note Style: 1. Joshua I. Weinstein, "The Market in Plato’s Republic," Classical Philology 104 (2009): 440.

Duplicate Note: 2. Weinstein, "Plato’s Republic," 452–53.

Bibliography: Weinstein, Joshua I. "The Market in Plato’s Republic." Classical Philology 104 (2009): 439–58.

An article in an electronic journal

Note Style: 1. Gueorgi Kossinets and Duncan J. Watts, “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network,” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411, accessed February 28, 2010, doi:10.1086/599247.

Duplicate Note: Kossinets and Watts, “Origins of Homophily,” 439.

Bibliography: Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 405–50. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.

A website

Note Style: 1.“Google Privacy Policy,” last modified March 11, 2009, http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacypolicy.html.

Duplicate Note: “Google Privacy Policy.”

Bibliography: Google. “Google Privacy Policy.” Last modified March 11, 2009. http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacypolicy.html.

 

The author-date style has long been used by those in the physical, natural, and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and date of publication. The short citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided.

Author/Date Style

In-text Citation

Bibliography

A book

(Pollan 2006, 99–100)

Pollan, Michael. 2006. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin.

An article in a print journal

(Weinstein 2009, 440)

Weinstein, Joshua I. 2009. “The Market in Plato’s Republic.” Classical Philology 104:439–58.

An article in an electronic journal

(Kossinets and Watts 2009, 411)

Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. 2009. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115:405–50. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.

A website

(Google 2009)

Google. 2009. “Google Privacy Policy.” Last modified March 11. http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacypolicy.html.

(Source: Official Chicago Manual website)

Chicago Manual

The Chicago Manual of Style is often used to document sources for papers in the humanities (e.g. history, fine arts, and political science). 

The purpose of documentation is to:

  • Identify (cite) other people’s ideas and information used within your essay or term paper.
  • Indicate the authors or sources of these in a Bibliography at the end of your paper.

The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.) recognizes two basic styles of citation. This guide is intended as a guideline for the Notes and Bibliography system only.

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