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California Environment Information Sources

General Introductions

  • California Grasslands: Ecology and Management (Stromberg, Corbin and D'Antonio) 2007 (QH 541.5 P7 C35 2007)Scholarly work on the history, ecology and conservation of California grasslands which comprise approximately 13% of California's land area. Provides an "overview and detailed synthesis of the extensive research published since the last such summary of grassland research in California" in Grassland Structure and Function: California Annual Grassland.
  • California Grasslands and Range Forage Grasses (Sampson, Chase and Hedrick) 1951 (California Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 724) Introductory chapters cover the ecology and nutrition of California range grasses. The main part of the work includes keys, species accounts and B/W illustrations of important range forage plants. There is also a checklist of 400 grasses growing naturally in California.
  • California Forests and Woodlands: a Natural History (Johnson) 1994 (QH 105 C2 J59 1994) (California Natural History Guides # 58) Popularly written account of the natural history of 11 major forest and woodland types in California.
  • California Range Brushlands and Browse Plants (Sampson and Jespersen) 1963 (S 39 E27 #33) (California Agricultural Experiment Station Manual #33) Includes a general discussion of "biological and management considerations" in brushlands, a key to species, and species descriptions that include taxonomy, distribution and economic value.
  • California Range Land: an Historico-Ecological Study of the Range Resource of California(Burcham) 1957 (SF 85 B8) Major historical overview of the development of California's livestock industry since the arrival of the Spanish and its impact on California's range resource. Also includes a description of the California's range resource and steps that can be taken to reverse the damaged resource.
  • Conifers of California (Lanner) 1999 (ref QK 494 L36 1999) For each species gives information on identification, habitat distribution, and range map. Includes color photographs of each species along with illustration of cones. Appendix includes keys based upon cone or leaf characteristics.
  • Ecology and Restoration of California Grasslands, with Special Emphasis on the Influence of Fire and Grazing on Native Grassland Species (D’Antonio, Bainbridge, Kennedy, Bartolome, and Reynolds) 2000. Review paper evaluates the impacts of grazing and fire on the composition of grasslands in California with specific emphasis on their effects on native forbs and perennial grasses. Goal is to help refine potential management regimes that might be applied to California rangeland systems to enhance the richness and abundance of native grassland species.
  • Field Guide to Western Trees (Petrides) 1992 (Peterson Field Guide Series #44) (ref QK 133 P48 1992) Includes nearly 400 native and naturalized trees in western North America. Color illustrations.
  • Fire in California's Ecosystems (Sigihara) 2006 (QH 105 C2 F57 2006) This scholarly work is the first to synthesize the existing state of  knowledge on the science, ecology, and management of fire in California. Fire is an integral part of the natural process in the California landscape and a growing threat to urban and suburban developments that have encroached on the state's wildlands.
  • Forest Trees of the Pacific Coast; including a brief account of the outstanding characters, distribution and habitats of the trees native of Alaska, British Columbia, Washington and Oregon; most of which are also found in Idaho and northern California and eastward to the western slopes of the Rocky mountains (Eliot) 1948 (QK 482 E5 1948) Contains popularly written accounts of 93 Pacific Coast trees. Each descriptive account includes information on nomenclature; range; habitat; leaves, fruit and wood; and other distinguishing features. Includes illustrations and keys.
  • Forest Trees of the Pacific Slope (Sudworth) 1908 (print copy available in ref QK 481 S95) Classic illustrated guide to Pacific Coast trees that gives distinguishing characteristics, range, and occurence for each species. While the names and classifications are outdated the fine line drawings and detailed information on geographic distribution remain very useful.
  • Grassland Structure and Function: California Annual Grassland (Huenneke and Mooney) 1989 (QH 105 C2 G73) Chapters contain summaries of previously published research describing the distribution, abiotic factors, population, community, and ecosystem processes in California annual grasslands.
  • History of the Coniferous Forests, California and Nevada (Axelrod) 1976 (QK 1 C2 #70) (University of California Publications in Botany #70) Paleobotanical treatise on the origins of the California forests.
  • Illustrated Manual of California Shrubs (McMinn) 1939 (QK 484 C2 M24) Scholarly work on the shrubs of California with taxonomic keys and descriptive accounts for each species. Includes selective photos and illustrations.
  • Illustrated Manual of Pacific Coast Trees (McMinn, Maino, & Shepherd) 1937 (print copy available in QK 482 M25 1937) Older scholarly guide to the native and introduced trees along the Pacific coast from California to British Columbia. Includes keys to genera and species with accompanying short species accounts.
  • Introduction to California Chaparral (Quinn and Keeley) 2006 (QH 105 C2 Q56 2006) (California Natural History Guides # 90) Introductory overview and field guide to the ecology of chaparral and the role of humans and fire in chaparral. Specific chapters cover climate, fire, plants, animals and living with chaparral.
  • Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands (Bossard, Randall and Hoshovsky) 2000 (print copy available in SB 612 C2 I58 2000) Contains information on the history of invasive plants in California, their managment and species accounts for 78 nonnative plant species that are listed by the California Exotic Pest Plant Council as being of greatest ecological concern in California. 
  • Natural History of Western Trees (Peattie) 1953 (QK 481 P42) Contains longer popularized accounts of trees native to the western United States. Includes a key to species and genera. Accounts includes descriptions of the trees, fine wood engravings, their ranges and environment and their ethnobotanical uses.
  • Oaks of California (Pavlik) 1991 (QK 495 F14 O25 1991) Contains descriptions of the 18 tree and shrub oaks of California along with associated chapters on their ecology, human interactions, preservation, and exploration.
  • SelecTree for California: A Tree Selection Guide (Cal Poly State University, San Luis Obispo. Urban Forest Ecosystems Institute) Interactive program designed to match specific tree species to a particular site based upon compatible characteristics. The database consists of records for almost 1,500 trees that include 49 selection criteria (site characteristics, tree characteristics, maintenance, and use). Search the database by species or by one or more selection criteria. Also includes 5,000 photos linked to each record.
  • Silva of California (Jepson) 1910 (print copy available in Q11 C34 vol. 2) (Memoirs of the University of California vol. 2) Early scholarly work on the “timber trees” of California. Accounts for each species include taxonomy, geographical distribution, dendrological characteristics and economic importance. Includes 85 full page illustrations, maps of Giant Sequoia groves and general descriptions of the five “forest provinces” in California.
  • Trees and Shrubs of California (Stuart and Sawyer) 2001 (ref QK 149 S73 2001) (California Natural History Guide # 62) Scholarly field guide to the woody plants of California's wildlands. Intended for both amateurs and professionals. Includes 200 line drawings, 300 range maps, 40 color plates and easy-to-use plant keys.
  • Trees of California (Jepson) 1909 (print copy available in QK484.C2 J5 1909) Early work on trees of California that provides keys, illustrations and popular accounts for 94 tree species. Introductory chapters cover “forest provinces”, influence of fire and Native Americans, Sequoia, and redwood regeneration. A second edition was published in 1923 with additional introductory material.

CA - Forests and Rangelands Maps

Forest Cover of California

Guides and Bibliographies

  • Bibliographies on Chaparral and the Fire Ecology of Other Mediterranean Systems(Keeley) 1988 (California Water Resources Center Report #69) (TD 224 C3 C3 No.69)
  • California Rangelands: Annual Rangeland References (California Society for Range Management) Bibliography containing 157 references on California annual rangelands.
  • Forest Fire Research in California: An Annotated Bibliography, 1923-1961 (Wilson & Nilsson) 1962 (Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station Miscellaneous Paper No. 75) (Docs A 13.62/9:75)
  • Fire Science Bibliography (California Fire Science Consortium) Includes over 1,700 citations of scientific articles relating to fire ecology and management in the western United States, many of which are specific to California. The bibliography is currently in .XML format. The bibliography can be downloaded and then imported into Endnote, Mendeley, Zotero and other citation-management software programs. You can use your citation-management software to search the collection by keyword, author, date, or any other field you choose, to find citations relevant to your interests.
  • "Forests Transformed" IN Bibliography of California Environmental History pp. 43-57 (Teisch) 1998 (GE 155 C2 G75 1998) Lists primary and secondary books and journal articles.
  • Historical Works of California Native Grasses and Grassland Management (California Native Grasslands Association) Historical overview and bibliography of important research and papers on California's native grasses and grassland management, from the earliest papers by Sampson to the present. Some of the earlier, historical out-of-print articles and papers have been digitized.
  • Key to the Literature Presenting Tree Volume and Taper Equations for Species in the Pacific Northwest and California (Hann) 1994 (Oregon State University. Forest Research Laboratory. Research Contribution 6) (print copy available in SD 144 A13 R4 #6)
  • "Rangelands Exploited" IN Bibliography of California Environmental History pp. 58-66 (Teisch) 1998 (GE 155 C2 G75 1998) Lists primary and secondary books and journal articles.
  • Selected Fire References Related to the Sierra Nevada (Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks Fire Information Cache)
    References are categorized by "General Literature/Information", "Technical & Scientific Literature" and "Historic & Background Literature". Concentration is on Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks and the southern Sierra Nevada but also includes other fire related references that may be of general interest. Papers are listed by date within each section.

Environmental History

  • California Government and Forestry (Clar) 1959 (Cal Doc C805 H5g) History of forest use and forestry practice in California from Spanish-Mexican California to 1940.
  • California Range Land: an Historico-Ecological Study of the Range Resource of California(Burcham) 1957 (SF 85 B8) Major historical overview of the development of California's livestock industry since the arrival of the Spanish and its impact on California's range resource. Also includes a description of the California's range resource and steps that can be taken to reverse the damaged resource.
  • Century of Lumber Production in California and Nevada (May) 1953 (Docs A 13.62/8:20) (USFS California Forest and Range Experiment Station. Forest Survey Release No. 20) Brief history of lumber production in California and Nevada from 1849 to 1951. Tables and charts show annual production in general, number of mills, production by major species and production by region and top counties.
  • Development of Industrial Forestry in California (Fritz) 1960 (University of Washington. College of Forestry. Colonel William B. Greeley Lectures in Industrial Forestry no. 4) Includes historical background on the rise of industrial forestry in California--"forest practices on privately-owned lands that will not impair the forest soil's ability to promptly replace what was cut with new trees of desirable species, to the end that lumbering can be made a profitable continuous enterprise"--as well as a parallel conservation movement; a description of the forest regions of California; problems faced by industrial foresty; and the future of industrial forestry as seen in 1960.

Reviews and Assessments

  • California's Forest Products Industry: a Descriptive Analysis (Morgan and others) 2004 (USFS General Technical Report PNW-615) (Docs A 13.88:PNW-615) The latest in a series of periodic surveys of the primary forest products industry in California. Earlier surveys referenced in the report were done in 1968, 1972, 1976, 1982, 1985, 1988, 1992 and 1994. Tables and text provide a description of the structure, operations and condition of the industry and a brief overview of timber inventory and growth. Specific areas covered include plant capacity, mill residue and forest products sales, employment and worker earnings.
  • California's Forest Resources: Preliminary Assessment (California Department of Forestry) 1979 (Cal Doc F 770 F68) The first assessment of California forests and rangelands conducted under the requirements of the Forest and Rangeland Resources Assessment and Policy Act of 1977. The opening Integrative chapter provides a synopsis of California forest resources and resource issues - status, trends, problems and options. The succeeding chapters contain supporting information and data on forest resources.
  • California's Forest Resources, 2001-2005: Five-year Forest Inventory and Analysis Report(Christensen, Campbell and Fried) 2008 (US Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-763) Presents key findings from data collected during the 2001-2005 Forest Inventory and Analysis Program across all forest land in California, including forest area, ownership, volume, biomass, carbon stocks, biodiversity, forest age, dead wood, diseases, fire, invasive plants, and air pollution.
  • California Forests: Trends, Problems and Opportunities (Bolsinger) 1980 (US Forest Service Resource Bulletin PNW-89) (print copy available in Docs A 13.80:PNW-89) Older US Forest Service analysis of forest area, timber volume and forest ownership in California. Also includes information on rate and replenishment of the forest resource, timber production problems, detailed statistical tables, outline history of California forestry, and a profile of the California forest industry.
  • California's Forests and Rangelands: Growing Conflict over Changing Uses (California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection. Fire and Resource Assessment Program - FRAP) 1988 (Cal Doc F 770 F62 U83) The second assessment of California forests and rangelands covering 85% of the state's area conducted under the requirements of the Forest and Rangeland Resources Assessment and Policy Act of 1977. Assesses the amount and extent of California's forests and rangelands, analyzes their conditions, and identifies alternative management and policy guidelines.
  • The Changing California: Forest and Range: 2003 Assessment (California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection. Fire and Resource Assessment Program - FRAP) 2003 (print copy of assessement summary available in Cal Docs F770.A76 C52) The third assessment of California forests and rangelands conducted under the requirements of the Forest and Rangeland Resources Assessment and Policy Act of 1977. Assesses the amount and extent of California's forests and rangelands, analyzes their conditions, and identifies alternative management and policy guidelines.Includes an assessment summary and more than 30 supporting technical documents.
  • Characteristics of the Range Livestock Industry (Frerichs and Cromwell) 2002. Reports on the ownership, organization type, tenure, inventory and production of the California r ange livestock industry that uses a significant portion of its forest and rangelands. Prepared for the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection Fire and Resource Assessment Program (FRAP)
  • Forest Areas, Timber Volumes and Vegetation Types in California (Wieslander and Jensen) 1946 (US Forest Service California Forest and Range Experiment Station Forest Survey Release No. 4) (print copy available in Docs A 13.62/8:4) First assessment of forest area and timber volume in California conducted by the US Forest Service, California Division of Forestry and American Forestry Association.
  • Land Base of California's Forests (California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection. Fire and Resource Assessment Program - FRAP) 1998. Assesses extent and changes in forest land in California.
  • Oak Woodlands and Other Hardwood Forests of California, 1990's (Waddel and Barrett) 2005 (print copy available in Docs A 13.80: PNW-245) (USFS Resource Bulletin PNW-245) Inventory of oak woodlands and other hardwood forests in California. Expansion of the first assessment covering the years 1981-84 and published as The Hardwoods of California's Timberlands, Woodlands and Savannas (Bolsinger) 1988 ( print copy available in Docs A 13.80: PNW-148) (USFS Resource Bulletin PNW-148).
  • Oaks 2040: The Status and Future of Oaks in California (Gaman and Furman) Prepared for the California Oak Founation this report assesses the current distribution and status of the ten oak types found in California and will be useful for required conservation planning at regional, county and local levels. Following an overall statewide assesement findings are reported for six regions: North Coast, North Interior, Central Coast, Sacramento, San Joaquin and Southern. Each regional report discuss oak diversity, oaks at risk and oak conservation issues. Overall goal of the report is to determine which oak woodlands are most likely to face development between now and 2040.
  • Shrubs of California's Chaparral, Timberland, and Woodland: Area, Ownership, and Stand Characteristics (Bolsinger) 1988 (print copy available in Docs A 13.80: PNW-160) (USFS Resource Bulletin PNW-160) Statewide inventory of shrubs in chaparral, timberland and woodland in California, along with a discussion of the relevance of shrubs to resource management.

Data Compilations

  • California Big Trees: Official Registry of California Big Trees (California State University, San Luis Obispo. Urban Forest Ecosystems Institute) Lists the largest recorded specimen of each native and naturalized tree species growing in California.
  • California Forest Pest Conditions Report (California Forest Pest Council) Annual report that includes information on insects, diseases, animal damage, pollution and weeds.
  • Encycloweedia (California Department of Food and Agriculture) Contains data sheets with information on the "...identification, biology, and management of plants defined as noxious weeds by California law." Browse by scientific name, common name, country of origin, or pest rating.
  • Forest Statistics for California (US Forest Service. California Forest and Range Experiment Station. Forest Survey Staff) 1954 (Forest Survey Release #25) (Docs A 13. 62/8:25) Presents statistics of forest area, timber volume and ownership for California as of January 1, 1953.
  • Production of California Timber Operators (California Division of Forestry) 1960-1978 (Cal Docs F 770 F6-various numbers) Issued as a subset of the State Forest Notes series from #8 to #74. Contains annual statistics from 1959 to 1977 by county for number of timber operators and production of various forest products. Also includes a statewide summary table covering 1946-1977.
  • Statistics and Events (California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection) Includes annual statistics and events as well as general statistics, e.g, top 20 California fires.
  • Timber Resource Statistics for the ... Area of California (Waddell & Bassett) 1996-1997 (US Forest Service Resource Bulletins PNW 214, 220, 221, 222, 224) (print copies available in Docs A 13.80: PNW 214, 220, 221, 222, 224) Most recent in series of five regional reports presenting estimates of land area, timber volume, growth mortality, and harvest for both public and private lands. Earlier reports are referenced in the "Literature Cited" of each report.
  • Timber Yield Tax (California State Board of Equalization) Includes tables for timber harvest volume and value by county from 1992 to the present; and statewide from 1978 to the present.
  • Wildfire Activity Statistics (California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection) (print copies available in Cal Doc F 770 F51) Annual compilations from 1943 to the present.